Sunday, Deember 9, 2018 at 4:00 pm
Don’t miss our annual Christmas Pops concert at The Lensic, led by Principal Conductor Guillermo Figueroa, and featuring a special side-by-side performance with The Santa Fe Youth Symphony!
NORRIS / FAITH
JOHANN STRAUSS SR
|Selections from The Nutcracker Suite
Karelia Suit, op.11
Brazilian Sleigh Bells
Radetzky March, op.228
Gold und Silber-Walzer (Gold and Silver Waltz), op.79
Mosáico Navideño (A Christmas Mosaic)
A Holly and Jolly Sing Along
Fantasia on Greensleeves
Be sure to join us for a FREE preview talk one hour before the concert.
Many thanks to Concert Sponsor-In-Part: Century Bank
Selections from The Nutcracker Suite
PETER ILYCH TCHAIKOVSKY
Born May 7, 1840, Votkinsk
Died November 6, 1893, St. Petersburg
Early in 1891, the Maryinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg approached Tchaikovsky with a commission for a new ballet. They caught him at a bad moment. At age 50, Tchaikovsky was assailed by worries that he had written himself out as a composer, and—to make matters worse—they proposed a story-line that the composer found unappealing: they wanted to create a ballet on the old E.T.A. Hoffmann tale Nussknacker und Mausekönig, but in a version that had been retold by Alexandre Dumas as Histoire d’un casse-noisette and then furthered modified by the choreographer Marius Petipa. This sort of Christmas fairy-tale full of imaginary creatures set in a confectionary dream-world of childhood fantasies left Tchaikovsky cold, but he accepted the commission and grudgingly began work.
Then things got worse. He had to interrupt work on the score to go on tour in America (where he would conduct at the festivities marking the opening of Carnegie Hall), and just as he was leaving his sister Alexandra died. The agonized Tchaikovsky considered abandoning the tour but went ahead (it was a huge success), and then returned to Russia in May and tried to resume work on the ballet. He hated it, and—probably more to the point—he hated the feeling that he had written himself out as a composer. To his brother, he wrote grimly: “The ballet is infinitely worse than The Sleeping Beauty—so much is certain.” The score was complete in the spring of 1892, and The Nutcracker was produced in at the Imperial Theatre in St. Petersburg that December, only eleven months before the composer’s death at 53. At first, it had only a modest success, but then a strange thing happened—that success grew so steadily that in the months before his death Tchaikovsky had to reassess what he had created: “It is curious that all the time I was writing the ballet I thought it was rather poor, and that when I began my opera [Iolanthe] I would really do my best. But now it seems to me that the ballet is good, and the opera is mediocre.”
Tchaikovsky may have suspected—in the months before his premature death—that The Nutcracker would prove a success, but he could have had no idea just how popular it would prove: over the last century The Nutcracker has become an inescapable part of our sense of Christmas, and the current catalog lists nearly forty recordings of the familiar Suite. This concert offers not that familiar Suite but a selection of movements from the ballet, largely characteristic dances. These begin with the blazing Spanish Dance (chocolate), followed by the murmuring Arabian Dance (coffee), nicely accented by the sound of tambourine; the Chinese Dance (tea) features the sound of busy bassoons and swirling flutes (Disney’s dancing mushrooms in Fantasia were perfect with this music). The fiery Russian Dance (sometimes called Trepak) is a wild Cossack dance, while The Dance of the Mirlitons is enlivened by the bright sound of three flutes. La mère Gigogne (roughly equivalent to The Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe) features dancing clowns. Tchaikovsky, who was an admirer of Johann Strauss, loved waltzes, and this selection concludes with one of his finest, The Waltz of the Flowers from Act II of The Nutcracker.
We hear such music and are left wondering: how possibly could the man who wrote it have worried that he had dried up as a composer?
Born May 11, 1888, Tyumen, Russia
Died September 22, 1989, New York City
Born in Russia, Israel Baline came to this country with his family at age five. He began writing songs as a boy and published his first at age nineteen. Four years later, under the name Irving Berlin, he achieved fame (and wealth) with the song Alexander’s Ragtime Band and went on to become one of the most characteristic American voices of the twentieth century: Estimates of the number of songs he wrote run as high as 1500. Many of these—songs like God Bless America, There’s No Business Like Show Business, and This Is the Army, Mr. Jones—have become part of the American national identity.
White Christmas was originally part of Berlin’s score for the 1942 film Holiday Inn, sung by Bing Crosby. The mellow sound of Crosby’s voice was perfectly suited to this song, with its warm but relaxed sentiment, and White Christmas—in its many reincarnations—has become an inescapable way we think of that holiday. Its popularity has never been in doubt: White Christmas won the Academy Award as the best song of 1942.
Born June 29, 1908, Cambridge, MA
Died May 18, 1975, Westbury, CT
Leroy Anderson’s Sleigh Ride has become an inescapable part of the way we observe Christmas, and its infectious rhythms and pleasing tunes can be heard in every shopping mall in this country during the holiday season. The story behind this famous music is an interesting one. During World War II, Anderson had served as a translator for the army in Iceland. There was a housing shortage after the war as veterans returned from overseas, and Anderson, his wife, and their infant daughter had to move into a cottage in Woodbury, Connecticut, that was owned by his mother-in-law.
Brazilian Sleigh Bells
PERCY FAITH (arranged by Lee Norris)
Born April 7, 1908, Toronto, Ontario
Died February 9, 1976, Encino, California
Percy Faith received his early training as a pianist in Canada and as a young man played the piano for silent films in movie houses. His career as a pianist came to an end at age 18 when his young sister accidentally set her dress on fire, and Faith’s hands were burned seriously as he rescued her. He then switched to a career as an arranger and composer, became an American citizen in 1945, and was based primarily in Hollywood, where he wrote film scores, recorded, and made countless arrangements for a number of artists.
JOHANN STRAUSS I
Born March 14, 1804, Vienna
Died September 25, 1849, Vienna
The Viennese craze for waltzes was launched by Johann Strauss I and Josepf Lanner in the early nineteenth century, but Strauss’ son—Johann Strauss II—was the real waltz king. It was the son who wrote the Blue Danube, Emperor, Wiener Blut, Morning Papers, and hundreds of other waltzes that will charm audiences as long as there is music. Though the waltzes and performances of the senior Strauss were much admired in his lifetime, his music has almost disappeared from concert programs today, and by a curious irony his one composition to achieve enduring fame, the Radetzky March, is not a waltz at all.
In 1848, revolutions swept across Europe, threatening the old order in general and the Hapsburg monarchy in Vienna in particular. In that same year Field Marshal Radetzky, the commander of the Hapsburg forces in Italy, crushed a revolt by Italian nationalists and was installed as governor of Lombardy. Imperial Vienna was grateful for any military success in those nervous times, and in celebration of this victory Strauss wrote his Radetzky March.
This quick little march (it zips past in less than three minutes) is in ternary form. It opens with the snappy march tune itself, and the jaunty middle section is full of leaps and trills before the opening material returns to round matters off emphatically. It is easy to understand the eternal popularity of this music, one commentator notes that it “fires the blood like pepper.”
A couple of notes: The Radetzky March was one of the earliest examples of a musical generation gap. Strauss Sr. was intensely conservative politically and he was only too happy to write music to celebrate a victory by the establishment. In fact, The New Grove Dictionary describes the Radetzky March as a “symbol of the military might of the old Hapsburg monarchy.” However, his sons (including Johann II) were sympathetic with the revolutionary spirit of the times. While their father’s Radetzky March was entertaining Imperial audiences in the palaces, the sons were conducting their own Revolution March on the barricades.
Second, every year the Vienna Philharmonic gives a New Year’s Eve concert, a program of Viennese waltzes to welcome in the New Year. It is a wildly popular concert and is televised around the world. By tradition, there are only two encores for this concert. The first is the Blue Danube Waltz. The second is the Radetzky March.
Gold and Silver Waltz
Born April 30, 1870, Komáron
Died October 24, 1948, Bad Ischl, Austria
The Gold and Silver Waltz, which seems to breathe the sparkling atmosphere of turn-of-the-century Vienna, was actually written by a composer of Hungarian origin. Franz Lehár was born in a small town near Budapest, the son of a Hungarian army bandmaster. The boy showed musical promise and studied violin at the Prague Conservatory, where he was advised by Dvořák to concentrate on composing. At first the boy followed a family tradition: at age 20 he was named the youngest bandmaster in the Austrian Army. As a regimental bandmaster, Lehár was eventually posted to Vienna, and in 1902 he left the army and made Vienna his home.
The Gold and Silver Waltz does not come from an operetta. Lehár wrote it for Princess Metternich’s Gold and Silver Ball during carnival season in Vienna in January 1902, just as he left the army and settled in Vienna; at its premiere in the Sofiensaal, the hall was decorated with silver spotlights and golden stars. The music needs no introduction—a series of expectant flourishes leads to the first waltz sequence, and there are several more waltz-episodes along the way. This music’s popularity is no mystery: across its nine-minute span the Gold and Silver Waltz takes us back to the world of turn-of-the-century Viennese elegance, swirling couples in dazzling costumes, and seductive music.
Fantasia on “Greensleeves”
RALPH VAUGHAN WILLIAMS
Born October 12, 1872, Down Ampney
Died August 26, 1958, London
The old English folksong “Greensleeves” (mentioned by Shakespeare in The Merry Wives of Windsor) has been heard in many settings on many different texts, ranging from lovesongs to political ballads to hymns to dances and to Christmas and New Year’s carols (and even to some obscene variants). Vaughan Williams had a passion for English folk music, and he first used the “Greensleeves” tune in 1912 when he included it in the incidental music he composed for a production of Shakespeare’s Merry Wives at Stratford-upon-Avon. When he composed his opera Sir John in Love (based on The Merry Wives) during the years 1924-8, Vaughan Williams used the tune once again: it is sung by Mistress Ford in Act III. In 1934, this setting was arranged for small orchestra (flute, harp, and strings), and in this version it has become one of Vaughan Williams’ best-known works.
—Program notes by Eric Brombarger
One of the most versatile and respected musical artists of his generation—renowned as conductor, violinist, violist, and concertmaster—Guillermo Figueroa is the Principal Conductor of The Santa Fe Symphony Orchestra & Chorus. He also serves as the Music Director of the Music in the Mountains Festival in Colorado, Music Director of the Lynn Philharmonia in Florida, and is the founder of the highly acclaimed Figueroa Music and Arts Project in Albuquerque. Additionally, he was the Music Director of both the New Mexico Symphony and the Puerto Rico Symphony. With this last orchestra, he performed to critical acclaim at Carnegie Hall in 2003, the Kennedy Center in 2004, and Spain in 2005.